The single graph cast into the center rib on one side may be a clan sign.
Max Loehr illustrates a line drawing of what he refers to as a shaft-ring axe from the Sawyer Collection in Chinese Bronze Age Weapons, University of Michigan, 1956, p. 13, fig. 14 A, which is similar in shape to the present example. It also looks to have a design on the tang that most likely would have been inlaid. He dates these types of axes as Shang-Zhou.