The three comma-shaped locks parted at the center of Augustus's forehead, such as we have here, are characteristic of the Primaporta portrait type, recognized on the famous example found at the villa of his wife Livia at Primaporta. However, the furrowed and knitted brow on the present example contradicts the idealized and ageless classical features associated with the Primaporta type. As such the Emperor is here presented as a powerful and determined military man, an iconography more commonly associated with the earlier Actium portrait type created after the battle of Actium when Augustus became sole ruler of the Roman world. For a discussion on the varying portrait types of Augustus see pp. 61-69 in Kleiner, Roman Sculpture.