Carving from walrus and mammoth ivory has had a long tradition within popular Russian folk art since the middle ages, originating in the northern regions but enjoying greater popularity in the second half of the eighteenth century. Several production centers of ivory carving were well known at the time. These included Kholmogory, Archangelsk, Moscow and St. Petersburg. In the second half of the eighteenth century, the best craftsmen migrated to St. Petersburg to practice their skills. They mostly produced small items such as caskets, work boxes, toilet boxes and combs.