David Gaimster discusses the use of foreign coats of arms on German stoneware suggesting that their use was related to religious wars in the Low Countries; for a similar schnelle decorated with the arms of Spain and the Imperial arms, also with the initials LW, see German Stoneware 1200-1900, London, 1997, p. 181, no. 20 & col. pl. 7. Gaimster also notes that the initials LW may be for the mould-cutter Lomer Wilhelm. A pewter-mounted armorial schnelle dated 1576 and marked LW is in the Köln Kunstgwerbemuseum and is illustrated by G. R. von Bock, 'Verbreitung von Rheinischem Steinzeug', Keramos, 87/80, January 1980, p. 21, no. 18.