Emile Loubet (1838-1929) studied Law at Paris and established himself at Montelimar, of which city he was mayor from 1870-1899. He was a moderate republican deputy 1876-85, senator 1885-99, Minister of Public Works 1887-88, President of the Council 1892, Minister of the Interior 1892-93 and as such one of the signatories of the Franco-Russian alliance. His fall was caused by the Panama Canal crisis. Elected President of the Senate in 1896, he succeeded F. Faure as President of France (1899-1906). It was he who pardoned Dreyfus in 1904. His presidency was marked by anti-clerical politics and intense diplomatic activity; the visit to France by Nicholas II of Russia (1901), Edward VII of England and Victor-Emmanuele III of Italy (1903) and Alfonso XIII of Spain (1905); and his visits to Russia (1902), London (1903) and Rome (1904, all of which strengthed the Entente Cordiale.