No VAT will be charged on the hammer price, but VAT at 17.5% will be added to the buyer's premium which is invoiced on a VAT inclusive basis
The manji [swastika] is that of the Matsudaira family, daimyo of Okudono in Mikawa.
The karigane mon [wild geese] is one of several variations which were used by the hatamoto who were officials in the direct employ of the shogun
Michael Dean, Sado - Island of Gold, International Netsuke Society Journal (Fall 1997), p. 14
The London Token Convention, 1981.