For a list of surviving medieval Islamic instruments, arranged chronologically according to provenance, see the website:
On the quadrant in Islamic astronomy see the article "Rub'" [=quadrant] in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, 11 vols. to date, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1960 to present; Charette, Mathematical Instrumentation, passim, and King, Instruments of Mass Calculation, X-6.
For some of the latest research on Islamic instruments, see François Charette, Mathematical Instrumentation in Fourteenth-Century Egypt and Syria - The Illustrated Treatise of Najm al-Dîn al-Misrî, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2003, and David A. King, Instruments of Mass Calculation, vol. 2 of In Synchrony with the Heavens - Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Medieval Islamic Civilization, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2004.