The four-character inscription, Zhou Ci gong dun, may be translated as, 'dun vessel of Duke Ci of Zhou.' A gui vessel of similar shape and decoration to the present vessel is in the Palace Museum collection, Beijing, illustrated in The Complete Collection of Treasures of the Palace Museum - 27 - Bronze Ritual Vessels and Musical Instruments,. Hong Kong, 2006, pl. 39, p. 64. The four-character mark, Tao Zhai fa bao, may be translated as, 'the magical weapon of Tao Zhai'. Tao Zhai is the art-name of Tao Duanfang (1861-1911). For a discussion of Duanfang, see lot 1602.