Napoleon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, known as 'Plon-Plon', was born in Trieste and grew up in Italy. He entered military service in Wrttemberg in 1837. He was expelled from France in 1845 for republicanism. In 1851 he was named successor to Napoleon III. He married the Princess Clotilda, daughter of Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia in 1859; by whom he had two sons and a daughter. The death of the Prince Imperial in 1879 made him head of the family and in 1886, as pretender to the throne, he was exiled from France with his eldest son.