The Qutb Minar, Delhi, was built 1193-1230 for Qutb-ud-din-Aibak to mark the victory of Islam over the infidel. According to the carvings that decorate the tower, it was erected 'to cast the shadow of God over both east and west'. This model of the red sandstone tower does not include the top two stories which were re-built by Firoz Shah in 1288-93. The illustration shown above is from Mildred Archer, Company Painting - India Painting of the British Period,, V & A India Art Series, 1992, p. 147. The painting shows the cupola added by Col. Robert Smith in 1828 which was subsequently removed by an earthquake in 1848.