Victor Vasarely (1906-1997) explored the possibilities of Op Art through the realm of Constructivism and Kinetic Art. The Hungarian-Frenchman's induction to the world of optical illusions began with his studies under Bortnyik at the Budapest Bauhaus. At the Bauhaus, Vasarely developed the understanding of Josef Albers' color concepts and depth perceptions. Albers' black and white prints and paintings, as well as those in color, provided Vasarely with knowledge to produce his images which appeared as continual fluctuations between space and plane, convex and concave. With Albers' philosophies in mind, Vasarely developed his art by incorporating the concepts of Constructivism, implementing their belief of art as a harmonious collaboration of mathematics using multiple shapes and colors. Vasarely wrote a treatise titled the Yellow Manifesto, published in 1955, concerning the abandonment of traditional easel painting and stressing the ideas of kinetic art. Furthermore, he proclaimed the function of art should be the manifestation of an original idea rather than the object painted on the canvas. Unlike other Op Art artists of the 1960s, Vasarely was ahead of his time, creating his dizzying images as early as the 1940s. His tireless use of geometric forms and designs were employed to create paintings, sculptures, tapestries and jewelry that left a viewer pondering if it was he or the work that was disoriented. To produce optical illusions with Op Art, Vasarely employed the use of repetitive designs in which he superimposed two images, positive and negative. The positive image would be a black form on a white background while a negative would be a white image on a black background. The image would then appear to be in a state of flux, a trompe l'oeil as the eye would have an unconscious glancing back and forth between patterns. With his jewelry, Vasarely's zebra-like patterns and employment of circles optically fools the viewer into believing that the patterns are moving. In reality, it is the eyes that are playing the trick. Op Art became widely known for its consumerist prospects for fashion and decoration rather than its artistic endeavors.