There is only one accounted royal family member of this period named Ishmael. It is, therefore, likely that this seal belonged to Ishmael, son of Nethaniah, an officer of the royal family who remained in the kingdom of Judah after the destruction of the First Temple in Jerusalem by the Babylonians in 586 B.C. Ishmael is best known for his leadership role in the unsuccessful anti-Babylonian revolt against Gedaliah, the Babylonian-appointed governor of Judah (II Kings, 25:18-26; Jeremiah, 40:1-16; Jeremiah, 41:1-18). See Barkay, op. cit.