A similar example dated circa 1400 also with a narrow waist and pendent jewels from the Oppenheim Collection, now in the British Museum, was included in the exhibition, Buddhism: Art and Faith, London, 1985, illustrated by V. Zwalf (ed) in idem., no. 298. It is noted that between the 10th and 14th centuries, it was popular to depict such figures seated in rajalilasana, royal ease, ibid., p. 207. The Oppenheim Avalokitesvara is illustrated again by U. von Schroeder, Indo-Tibetan Bronzes, no. 143D, p. 143, where the figure is referred to as 'Water-Moon Guanyin'.
The larger example (33 cm. high) formerly in the Avery Brundage Collection, now in the Museum of San Francisco, dated to the 14th century is illustrated in Gems of Chinese Art, p. 250, pl. 111, where the author mentions that the figure in this pose is also known as the 'Avalokitesvara of the Southern Seas'. The name is probably drawn from the imagery of the figure seated at ease by a rocky shore. Compare also to a smaller figure (18 cm. high) in the Museum of East Asian Art, Oxford, included in the O.C.S. exhibition, 'The Arts of the Song Dynasty', and illustrated in T.O.C.S., 1959-1960, no. 236.
Compare to the similar example sold in our Hong Kong Rooms, 6 November 1997, lot 1071