Christie's charges a Buyer's premium calculated at 23.205% of the hammer price for each lot with a value up to €110,000. If the hammer price of a lot exceeds €110,000 then the premium for the lot is calculated at 23.205% of the first €110,000 plus 11.9% of any amount in excess of €110,000. Buyer's Premium is calculated on this basis for each lot individually.
The Grand Tour
For many the Grand Tour -often undertaken in numerous coaches laden with servants, trunks and furniture- became an intellectual and romantic rite of passage. The term "Grand Tour" became current because of the notion "that a young man could expect to develop his education founded upon a study of the Classics with a tour of at least France and Italy". By 1700 the Grand Tour was firmly established as the ideal means by which to import both taste and knowledge to a young gentleman in addition or instead of a university education. Such a journey lasted for one to two years, an important element was a tutor. The most tangible result of the Grand Tour was the increasingly cosmopolitan collections of the gentleman and connoisseur. From England the journey was undertaken by sea and over land, traditionally through France to Italy. From Calais to Florence one could travel in 56 hours whilst changing horses en route. Italy was favoured, to see all the places one has heard of in Roman history. France, The Netherlands, Germany and later Switzerland were also visited. On the Continent strange customs were experienced and souvenirs were collected as their "trophies of travel". The image of the 18th and 19th Century Grand Tourist is familiar: the gentleman travels in order to spot emerging fashions, broaden his knowledge and develop his powers of discernment. He then displays his various collections so he can be admired for his skill and taste as a connoisseur. Often his portrait was painted by an Italian artist in a Classical landscape. During the 19th Century women were still supposed to look after the house and keep herself to herself. However some broke from convention and took the male privilege of travelling to the Continent to develop mind, spirit and body as well as become independent. "The landscape, health spas, salons and social scene of Enlightenent Europe provided a wealth of glamorous revolutionary and therapeutic experiences from which many ladies returned the best informed and most perfect creatures". Social etiquette, dress code, coiffures changed and words were taken from other languages. Some women just travelled to Paris to visit every couturier, others went to Italy to collect art and souvenirs, like sculptures, cameos, objets de vertu and jewels. Lot 603 is a fine example of a souvenir in Egyptian revival style relating to the opening of the Canal of Suez in 1869.