A very similar embroidered robe is illustrated by John E. Vollmer, Decoding Dragons: Status Garments in Ch'ing Dynasty China, University of Oregon Museum of Art, 1983, p. 95, pl. 50. The author notes on page 199 that, "red ground nonofficial formal coats for Manchu women became increasingly popular in the 19th century", and as many were decorated with long-life symbols, such as the crane in the present example, "probably served as celebratory costume for older women within Manchu families"
Compare, also, a kesi example included in the inventory of Yamanaka & Company, Inc., New York, 1943, Catalogue, no. 1503; and the gauze example sold in these rooms, March 23, 1995, lot 286