For a related zitan portable chest constructed with a removeable vertical front cover, see C. Evarts, A Leisurely Pursuit: Splendid Hardwood Antiquities from the Liang Yi Collection, Hong Kong, 2000, p. 199, no. 71. It has been noted that storage chests of this type were used for multiple purposes, and an example constructed with an additional handle can be seen in Leng Mei's early 18th century painting, 'Eighteen Beauties of the Han Palace at the Break of Spring', ibid., p. 198, where it is illustrated as an artist's toolbox. It is possible that the present chest, lined with silk brocade, was used for storage of stationery similar to the sandalwood travelling stationery container in the Palace Museum, Beijing, included in the exhibition, Qing Legacies: The Sumptuous Art of Imperial Packaging, Macau Museum of Art, 2000, illustrated in the Catalogue, p. 109, no. 34.