Daybeds with hoof feet and without stretchers are rare. A citable example is the wooden model mentioned by Wang Zhengshu in his article, 'Conjectures on Models of Ming-Period Furniture from the Pan Yunzheng Tomb in Shanghai', Beyond the Screen, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1996, pp. 77-83, and illustrated by N. Berliner, op. cit., p. 150, no. 30b.
For uses of the daybed as indoor and outdoor seating during the Ming dynasty, refer to Wang et al., Masterpieces from the Museum of Classical Chinese Furniture, Chicago and San Francisco, 1995, p. 6. Compare, also, the example illustrated by Wang et al., op. cit., p. 7, formerly in the collection of the Museum of Classical Chinese Furniture, sold in these rooms, 19 September, 1996, lot 23.
For paintings depicting daybeds used in the above manner, refer to the Catlaogue for the Special Exhibition of Furniture in Paintings, National Palace Museum, Taiwan, 1996, nos. 20 and 24.