John W. Charlton was involved with several firms before opening his own company in 1909 at 298 Fifth Avenue, originally known as J.W. Charlton. With the addition of a partner, Robert S. Chapin, the name was changed to Charlton & Co. which was relocated uptown to 634 Fifth Avenue. Upon Charlton's retirement in 1919, his partners, James Todd and Grant A. Peacock took over the business, carrying on his tradition of creating fine jewellery.
In the late 1920s, they opened branches in Palm Beach, Florida and in Paris on the fashionable rue de la Paix offering their elite clientele exquisite gemstones such as this 27.45 carat Burmese sapphire.