Livorno, also known as Leghorn, is a Tuscan harbour city and was originally a small fishing village. During the Renaissance it became an important area under the Medici rule and now has some important landmarks dating from this period, including the great fortress. At the end of the 18th century Livorno expanded when it was opened to foreign merchants under Leopold II. Around this time the German artist Jakob Philipp Hackert (1737-1807) executed similar views of the harbour (see W. Krönig and R. Wegner, Jakob Philipp Hackert. Der Landschaftsmaler der Goethezeit, Cologne, 1994, illustrated plates 7 and 8). Hackert was born in Prenzlau, Germany and went to Rome in 1768. He spent much of his career in Italy, predominantly in Rome and Tivoli and when he died he was buried in Livorno.