Earlier medieval pastiglia caskets can be differentiated from later Renaissance examples largely by their subject matter, which usually centered around amorous couples and scenes from the chivalric romances so popular at the time. Later, as popular trends turned to civic pride and the Antique, the themes and decorative vocabulary depicted on these caskets also changed. Such themes now often centered around the Roman histories, classical mythology or depictions of civic, heroic or womanly virtues. For example, the two female figures shown on the top of the current box, Judith and Lucrezia, were often paired as heroines for the admiration of their honor and sacrifice. Likewise, the scenes depicted around the sides of this box, one side showing a battle scene followed by three further sides depicting a triumphal Roman march, are exemplary of the later phase of pastiglia decoration.
White pastiglia, whitened by the addition of lead, was favored on a punched and gilt background for its emulation of the then-perceived classical preference in scupture. Indeed Renaissance sculpture, which took its cue from Antique examples, favored the natural white of marble and may have served as an influence for pastiglia decoration. Likewise, the white found on this box can be said to be in emulation of the exotic and costly material ivory, employed by such successful Gothic workshops as the Embriachi in Northern Italy. Finally, this stark, almost grisaille, effect as especially seen in the grotesque and arabesque border and frieze decoration would have looked to the white stucco decoration recently discovered in Nero's Domus Aurea at around 1480.