This figure is similar to another figure of an ox included in the exhibition, Animals and animal designs in Chinese Art, Eskenazi, New York, 24 March - 4 April 1998, no. 14, also dated to Northern Qi, as is the similar torso of an ox, minus legs and horns in the George Crofts Collection, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, no. 918.2.5. See, also, the ox excavated in Ci Xi'an, Hebei province, from a tomb dated to 550 B.C., illustrated in Wenwu, 1984:4, pl. 5:1.; and another illustrated in Zhongguo Meishu Quanji; Diaosu Bian; Wei Jin Nan Bei Chao Diaosu (The Great Treasury of Chinese Fine Arts; Sculpture 3; Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties Sculpture), Beijing, 1988, vol. 3, p. 157, no. 134.
A rubbing of part of a wall mural from a tomb dated to 573 A.D. in Shandong Yidu, illustrated in Wenwu, 1985:10, p. 51, figs. 3:2 and 3:3, depicts a similar ox pulling a cart flanked by men.
The result of Oxford Authentication Ltd. thermoluminescence test no. C199q47 is consistent with the dating of this lot.