Gottfried Miller was a portrait painter and miniaturist working in New York City between 1841 and 1887. Two portrait miniatures by the artist John Henry Brown (1818-1891) related to the attributed example shown here are illustrated and discussed in Johnson, American Portrait Miniatures in the Manney Collection (New York, 1990), pp. 88-89, figs. 23-24 and Plate 32b. Brown was a native of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, though by 1845 he permanently relocated to Philadelphia were he exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts (1844-1864) and at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876.
A portrait miniature of a young lady by Leopold Paul Unger (1812-1859) is illustrated in Johnson, American Portrait Miniatures in the Manney Collection (New York, 1990), Plate 26c and discussed p. 220. Born in Konigsberg, East Prussia, Leopold Unger arrived in the United States in 1838. Ultimately settling in Allentown, Pennsylvania in 1839, Unger there married Mary Hart and established a portrait and miniature painting business which resulted in his travel in search of commissions. He is known to have worked briefly in Virginia and New Orleans and may have worked in New York City as well. A portrait miniaturist named Unger is also known to have worked in Montrose, Pennsylvania in 1845 and may be the same as the Allentown artist.