This is a berat or letters patent issued in the name of the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II. The letters patent were issued to Sharif 'Abd al-Muttalib ibn al-Sharif Ghalib appointing him Amir of Mecca in succession to Sharif Yahya ibn Surur. The ostensible reason for the change of Amir was due to the disorders, including murder, that had occured within the holy precinct around the Ka'ba.
The document was issued at a turbulent moment in Ottoman history when Mahmud II was vying with Muhammad 'Ali of Egypt for control of the Arab parts of the Empire. The high quality of the document reflects the importance of the post in question.
'Abd al-Muttalib held the post of Amir of Mecca on several occasions until his death in 1886.