George Demeny devised the Chronophotographe d'Amateur as early as 1893, for amateurs to shoot sequences on celluloid for mounting in his phonoscope picture disc machine.
Leon Gaumont later commercialised Demeny's mechanism. The result was a cinematograph for amateurs, the compact Chrono-de-Poche (Pocket Chrono), The camera used 15mm. film with an unusual central perforation which was the smallest extant format for more than twenty years until the introduction of the 9.5mm. Pathé system in 1922-23.