This picture was drawn by Nicholas Turner to the attention of Paul Joannides, who proposed the attribution to Penni, noting that the picture is a variant of the Louvre Small Holy Family, which is attributable to Giulio Romano in Raphael's studio, and for which Joannides endorses a date of about 1518. Joannides considers this panel to be 'roughly contemporary' with that picture and to be by Raphael's other main pupil, Penni. He compares the architecture with that of Penni's Borghese Holy Family and the Kingston Lacy Madonna with Child with the Infant Baptist, suggesting a derivation of the building in the background from Agostino Chigi's Stalle, but arguing that the nude statue 'may be Penni's own - rather witty - invention' (p.19). Joannides remarks (letter of 5 August 2000) that as revealed by reflectography the underdrawing is 'perfectly congruent' with that of the Raphael school.
Joannides also notes that the facial type and veil of the Madonna recall Mabuse. This northern influence is also noted, on the basis of photographs, by Konrad Oberhuber (e-mail of 19 October 2001), who sees a debt to Bernard van Orley, and suggests that the picture is by a 'Netherlandish Romanist trained by van Orley', who might, like Coxcie, have worked in Rome. Everett Fahy (oral communication) also considers the picture to be by a northern hand, probably active in Rome in 1520s.