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EDITIO PRINCEPS of the greatest mathematical work of late Hellenism, of whose thirteen books only six are extant. The Greek text and the Latin translation by Guilelmus Xylander (Wilhelm Holtzmann) were edited by Claude-Gaspar Bachet de Méziriac (1581-1638), who also added his commentary. Bachet's reliance on Xylander's version (first published at Basle in 1575) is unacknowledged. "The Arithmetica is not a work of theoretical arithmetic in the sense understood by the Pythagoreans or Nicomachus. It deals, rather, with logistic, the computational arithmetic used in the solution of practical problems... In his solutions Diophantus showed himself a master in the field of indeterminate analysis" (DSB IV, 111). Bachet studied the contents carefully, filled in the lacunae, ascertained and corrected the errors, generalized the solutions, and devised new problems. He and Fermat, who took issue with Bachet's statement (see lot 72), became the founders of modern numbers theory.