EINSTEIN, Albert. Autograph manuscript postscript, with several autograph corrections and single word insertions, Berlin 1924. 1 page, written on recto only, of a single sheet of the stationery of the Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, wth editorial corrections, including the writing of the heading, by the publisher's staff.
[With:] Zur Quantentheorie des idealen Gases. Offprint from: Sitzungsberichte der Königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, III. Berlin, 1925. FIRST EDITION, AUTHOR'S PRESENTATION OFFPRINT ISSUE. BRL 149.2.
In June of 1924, a virtually unknown young Bengali named Satyendra Nath Bose wrote Einstein a letter and also enclosed the manuscript (in English) for his paper introducing a new statistics for light quanta. The manuscript had been rejected by a referee for Philosophical Magazine, and Bose asked Einstein if he would be willing to arrange publication of the work if Einstein thought it deserving. When Einstein read the paper, it was immediately clear to him that it was a revolutionary work. He arranged for its publication in German and added his own note as translator of the work. Einstein's autograph manuscript for that note is described above.
Einstein's note may be translated as follows: "This method, on the basis of which Mr. Bose has derived Planck's [blackbody] radiation formula, also allows one to apply it to ideal gases. One thus obtains a departure from the classical equation of ideal gases at low temperatures (degeneracy) [the famous Bose-Einstein condensation, in which all the atoms aggregate together in the lowest state of energy]. Finally, a paradox is obtained which leads one to conclude that the validity of the laws thus discovered may seem to be in doubt."
In 1937, Fritz London established the existence of the Bose-Einstein condensation. In 1995 the Bose-Einstein condensate, a new, definite atomic state of matter, was experimentally realized, thus confirming Einstein's derivation and the theory on which it was based.