That silver dealers, of which most obviously acted in good faith, sold forged antique silver objects, may be illustrated by some objects in the collection of Dr Bodo Slingenberg.
The present four 'Louis XV' candlesticks were made around 1900 and were intentionally marked with false Dutch essay-marks. Such practices were quite common and were evoked by the increasing demand for 17th and 18th Century silver during the second half of the 19th Century. Silversmiths, for example Jacob Feeterse (worked 1900-1923) and Antonius Jacob Henricus de Ruiter (1874-1903), took advantage of the increasing demand by making objects in pure historic styles and struck them with false marks, which at that time could not be recognised.
The publication of the names of the Haarlem gold- and silversmiths by Elias Voet in 1903 (Namen van Haarlemsche goud- en zilversmeden 1382-1807, Haarlem, 1903) was the first step towards the identification of Dutch silvermarks. Further research by Voet and much later by Mr. K.A. Citroen (Valse Zilvermerken in Nederland, Amsterdam, 1977) revealed that many collections contained forged silver objects.
Yet, Dr Bodo Slingenberg bought in several occasions excellently. He for instance acquired two Empire candlesticks (lot 461) in this sale made by the productive Amsterdam silversmith Hendrik Smits in 1810, a silver teapot (lot 459) by Martinus van Stapele, The Hague, 1755 and a tobacco box (lot 460) by Wijnand Warneke, Amsterdam, 1776