GUILELMUS DE OCKAM (ca. 1285-1387). Dialogorum libri septem adversos haereticos. Edited by Jodocus Badius Ascensius. -Compendium errorum Johannis papae XXII. [Lyon]: Johannes Trechsel, [not before 12 September 1494].
Chancery 2o (280 x 197 mm). Collation: s10; a-s8 t-v10; A-B8; C-O8; AA-BB6 (r first title, v prefatory letter from Josse Bade to Johannes Trithemius, dated Lyon, pridie idus  September 1494, r table of quaestiones principales, r alphabetical subject index, 0r blank, 0v woodcut of scholars, poem from Josse Bade to Trithemius; a1r Dialogus part 1; A1r Part 2; C1r Part 3, O8v blank; AA1r Compendium errorum, title, AA1v blank, AA2r text, BB6v blank). 298 leaves, a1-O8 foliated. 55 lines and headline, double column (except Bade's preface), printed marginalia. Types: 2:140GB (titles, head-lines), 1:77(75)G (text), 5*:59G2 (chapter-headings in the Dialogus, marginalia), 7:78R (Badius' verses under woodcut on 0v). Large woodcut of a magister and discipulus reading and writing in a library. 8-, 4- and 3-line initial spaces with printed guide letters. Unrubricated. (Some dampstaining, one to two wormholes through most of text, severe worming to the Compendium at end.) 20th-century panelled and blind-stamped mottled calf, by Maltby of Oxford.
Provenance: Henry VIII, King of England (1491-1547): pressmark of the Royal Library (1077) on title page -- Hannibal Gamon (fl. 1642): signature on title-page and note on the work's placement on the Index -- shelfmark label on front pastedown: C.10.9 -- Lionel Robinson (1897-1983): sale, Sotheby's London, 26 June 1987, lot 83 (to Quaritch).
Second edition of both works, HENRY VIII'S COPY. Ockham's Dialogues incorporated and elaborated upon several different treatises, written at different times of his life, all relating to his disputes with the papacy over the nature of papal vs. imperial authority. Ockham was one of the group of so-called "Spiritual" Franciscans, who upheld the strictest interpretation of the order's vow of poverty; although this extreme view was not supported by the Franciscan Minister General, Michael de Cesena, under the latter's direction the order upheld the doctrine of evangelical poverty (the supposition that Christ and his disciples had possessed no property) in 1322. This was refuted by Pope John XXII. Charged by Michael de Cesena to examine the papal views, Ockham energetically defied the Pope, accusing him of heresy, and, after a brief imprisonment, escaped and took refuge in Bavaria at the court of Emperor Ludwig IV, under whose protection he remained for the rest of his life. In the Dialogues (apparently unfinished), written in the form of an exchange between master and pupil, Ockham upheld his view that the authority of the Holy See is subordinate to imperial authority, and that the emperor has the right and duty to depose a heretical pope; in the appended "compendium of the errors of Pope John XXII" (which he may have intended to integrate into the main body of the Dialogues) Ockham listed 70 points of error and 7 heresies for which he he held the Pope responsible.
The work, which was placed on the Index librorum prohibitorum, would clearly have been of immediate interest to Henry VIII in his disputes with Rome. It was Neil Ker who recognized the pressmark on the title of this copy as that of Henry VIII's library, entered in the catalogue of 1542 (cf. a similar pressmark on the British Library copy of a Cologne edition of Augustinus, Sermo super orationem, BMC I, 215). The book must have left the library at an early date, since it was in the possession of the puritan divine Hannibal Gamon in the 17th century.
Trechsel's edition reprints that printed at Paris in 1476 by the eponymous "Printer of Ockam" (GW 11907). The preface by Josse Bade, who edited a number of works for Trechsel, identifies him as the printer of the work and includes a panegyric of printing. This includes the following passage: "ex quo divina imprimendo facultas inventa aut (ut verius dicam) in meliorum formam revocata est". BMC speculates that this might be "an allusion to Schoeffer as the perfector of printing or it may be a parallel to Zel's remarks on the Dutch anticipation of the Mainz invention, reported in the Cologne Chronicle of 1499." The passage clearly lends itself to any number of interpretations, including, in light of recent hypotheses developed at Princeton concerning the earliest typography, a possible reference to radical technical innovations in the methods of type casting.
Bade's bibliographer, Philippe Renouard, and Claudin both stated that the woodcut and verses of Josse Bade exhorting youth to scholarly pursuits, usually printed, as here, on the verso of the last leaf of the first quire, is in some copies printed on a singleton inserted after the final leaf, which was left blank. Claudin speculated that the leaf might have been intended as a prospectus; however, given the fact that the title of the work is not given, this seems unlikely.
HC 11938* + HC 11946*; BMC VIII, 296 (IB. 41906, 41906b); BSB-Ink. G-502; GW 11905 + 11908; Claudin, IV, pp. 80-81; Harvard/Walsh 3791-92; Renouard, Badius Ascensius III, 86; Goff 0-9.