HORAE, use of Sarum, in Latin and English -- Enchiridion preclare ecclesie Sarisburiensis. Paris: Germain Hardouin [c.1533].
PRINTED ON VELLUM. 8° (142 x 98mm). Collation: (a1r title with Hardouin device, prayer in English beginning 'God be in my hede', a1v verses in French beginning 'Ung iuif mutilant iadis', a2r almanac for 1533-1546, a2v-b1v calender, b2r-5r various prayers, the first beginning 'Auxiliatrix sis michi trinitas' [Trinity], b5v-7v Gospel sequence [St. John the Evangelist, 3 small cuts], b8r-d4v Hours of the Virgin: Matins-Lauds [Annunciation, Visitation], d5r Hours of the Cross [Crucifixion], d6r-f6r Hours of the Virgin: Prime-Compline [Nativity, Annunciation to the Shepherds, Adoration of the Magi, Presentation in the Temple, Flight into Egypt, Coronation of the Virgin], f6r-h2r Seven Joys of the Virgin, various prayers to the Virgin, including O intemerata, Obsecro te, prayers for saying before a crucifix, etc., h2v-i7v Seven Penitential Psalms [Bathsheba], i8r-n6r Office of the Dead [Job on his Dungheap], n6v-o5r Psalter of St. Jerome, o5r-6r prayer of St. Gregory, o6v-p7v Hours of the Passion, followed by a sequence of prayers to Christ, on the Trinity, etc., p8r-q6r Hours of the Holy Ghost [Pentecost], q6v-x2v sequence of prayers, including those of St. Ambrose, the Venerable Bede, and St. Gregory, prayers to the Virgin for saying on Saturday, etc., x3r-4r table of contents, x4v metalcut 'Arma Redemptoris Mundi', colophon). 164 leaves. 29 lines. Type: 62G. Printed in red and black. 14 half-page metalcuts and 3 small metalcuts ILLUMINATED IN GOLD AND COLOURS BY A CONTEMPORARY HAND, architectural borders in liquid-gold with red outline to large cuts, 4-part metalcut ornamental border to all text pages, liquid-gold initials and paragraph marks, and line-filler on alternating red or blue ground. (Light stains in a few leaves, final page lightly soiled, neat cuts in 3 leaves, a few vellum flaws repaired, colouring of Bathsheba and Pentecost smudged.) CONTEMPORARY ENGLISH VELVET BINDING of morello velvet over wooden boards, silver Tudor rose at center, cornerpieces with floral motif and clasp with fleur-de-lis, vellum endleaves, gilt edges (velvet worn at spine, sides slightly rubbed, sewing broken at upper hinge), mid-20th-century red morocco chemise and box by Rivière and Son. Provenance: Dorothy Carnaby (inscriptions, erasures removing St. Thomas à Becket and references to the pope in accordance with the new religion after 1534); John Briant Barrett, of Milton House, Berkshire, 1764 (bookplate pasted over by Foyle); G. Michelmore & Co. (booksellers, catalogue description laid in, priced £400).
LADY CARNABY'S COPY, illuminated and retaining its original purple velvet binding in remarkably good condition. Dorothy Carnaby was the wife of Sir Reynold Carnaby, an aspiring and powerful young man at the time of their marriage in 1536. Reynold was closely associated with Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland, whom he served as gentleman of the chamber and to whom he owed lucrative property leases and other preferments. Reynold continued to enjoy patronage at the highest level, in the form of Thomas Cromwell, after Henry's death on 29 June 1537, yet he was no longer protected from bitter antagonism from other Northumberland families, notably from Henry's younger brother, Thomas Percy, who blamed Reynold for Henry's decision to leave all of his land to Henry VIII, thereby effectively disinheriting the Percy family. The Carnaby's suffered arson, Reynold's father was attacked in 1541, before peace was made. Although these feuds did not hinder Reynold's success -- he was granted Hexham Priory by the Crown at its dissolution, and became sheriff of Northumberland in 1541 --, his health defeated him, and he died on 17 July 1543, after 3 months of a grave illness, leaving Dorothy a young widow with three young daughters and expecting a fourth child.
It is clear from the inscriptions that the present Book of Hours accompanied Dorothy through the joys and heartbreaks of her life from soon after the book's publication to several years after the death of her husband. It is first inscribed by Dorothy as 'Lady Carnaby', i.e. after 15 April 1536, and later inscriptions record Henry VIII's visit at Pontefract in August 1541, and the ages of her two oldest daughters, Catherine and Ursula, on 1 August 1542 (two and one, respectively); a third daughter, Mabel, was born later that year. Tellingly, there is no record in any surviving Carnaby genealogy of the birth of her fourth child, with whom she was pregnant at the time of Reynold's death. The family's great patron, Henry Percy, is remembered in a prayer for his soul. The last dated inscription is a motto in memory of her husband, written in 1546, 3 years after his death. It reads 'Mentre viuro Saro fidele Siate fermo' (While I shall live, I will be faithful: stay firm), written below Reynold's name and the Carnaby arms. Dorothy spent her widowhood at Hexham abbey and was still alive in 1565. (See Craster's History of Northumberland, vol. 10 for a survey of the Carnabys.)
Dorothy's status as a gentlewoman is reflected in her ownership of this book. A book of devotion, it is a de luxe copy, printed on vellum, illuminated by hand, and bound simply but richly in purple velvet. Owing to the delicate nature of the material, IT IS A RARE SURVIVAL OF A 16TH-CENTURY VELVET BINDING, strictly contemporary with the volume it covers.
The metalcuts are a smaller set not discussed by Davies, loosely copied from Hardouin's set in use from 1528 (see Foyle part II, lots 202 and 203; where the Trinity cut also appears). STC 15982; Hoskins 110.