The Geneva-born artist Jacques-Antoine Arlaud moved to Paris in 1688 where he became the miniature painter to Philippe, Duke of Orléans who granted him an apartment in the Castle of St. Cloud. His talent attracted members of the exiled Stuart family gathered at St. Germain and in October 1702 he painted Prince James (exhibition catalogue, British Portrait Miniatures, Edinburgh, 1965, no. 153). These miniatures were given to loyal supporters and this 'ad vivum' likeness became the prototype of numerous images.
A similar portrait of the Old Pretender, also by Arlaud, is illustrated in K. Henninger-Tavcar, Miniaturporträts, Pforzheim, 1995, p. 133.