The younger brother of Charles Willson Peale, James Peale (1749-1831) apprenticed with his brother in the elder's painting studio. James served in the Continental Army during the American Revolution before settling in Philadelphia where he focused on portrait miniature painting until his eyesight failed in 1818. (G and W, p. 492; Johnson, p. 167; and S and G, p.98-99).
Born a deaf-mute, John Carlin (1813-1891) studied at the Pennsylvania Institute for the Deaf and Dumb between 1821 and 1825. His career began with an ornamental sign painting business. In 1832 and by 1834, Carlin studied painting in Philadelphia and later in Europe. By 1841, Carlin settled in New York City. In addition to his work in Philadelphia and New York City and his study abroad, Carlin also routinely travelled seeking painting commissions. An annual exhibitor at the National Academy of Design from 1847 to 1886, Carlin also showed his work at the American Art Union, the Maryland Historical Society and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. (See G and W, p.109; and Johnson, pp. 90-91).