Louis II Phélypeaux de Pontchartrain was a French politician. After serving as head of the Parliament of Brittany, he held office as Controller-General of Finances and as Navy Secretary and, from 1690, Secretary of State of the Maison du Roi. In May 1700, he was made clerk of the prestigious Order of the Holy Spirit. He resigned in 1714 for having failed to affix the seals to the decree of 5 July 1714, condemning a document by the Bishop of Metz, Henri-Charles de Coislin, as contrary to the papal bull Unigenitus. He married Marie de Maupeou in 1668. Together they had one son, Jérôme Phélypeaux (1674-1747), comte de Pontchartrain.
Another version of this miniature, mounted on a tortoiseshell snuff-box by Vachette, is in the Victoria and Albert Museum (inv. no. 929.1882).