Richard Twining, second son of Daniel Twining (d. 1762) and his second wife, Mary Little and grandson of Thomas Twining (d. 1741), the founder of the tea house at Tom's coffee-house, Devereux Court, Strand, was born at Devereux Court and educated at Eton. He entered the tea business at the age of sixteen and in 1771 took over from his mother who had taken charge of the Twining tea business after the sudden death of her husband. Richard Twining was Chairman of the London Tea Dealers and persuaded William Pitt to cut tea duties and the Commutation Act of 1784 slashed tea taxes and made tea available to all. In 1787, Twining commissioned the famous doorway to the Strand shop with the golden lion and the two Chinese figures representing tea's origins and a new sign and typeface was revealed which is today the world's oldest logo that has been in continuous use. In 1793 Twining was elected a director of the East India Company. He published three papers of 'Remarks' on the tea trade and prohibited directors from trading with India. He resigned in 1816 due to ill-health. He married Mary Aldred of Norwich in 1771 and had six sons, three of whom entered the family business and four daughters. For a miniature of one of their daughters also by John Smart, signed and dated 1801, see Christie's, London, 9 December 2003, lot 157.