MAZZINI, Giuseppe (1805-1872). Nineteen autograph letters signed to Odoardo Villani and one to his comrades ('Fratelli Miei'), London and n.p., 14 December 40 - 25 November 44 and n.d., referring mostly to his activities among the Italian community in London, arranging meetings, mentioning his school [in Hatton Garden], pamphlets, the Apostolato Popolare, enlisting his correspondent's support to raise funds for the Union [of Italian working men], 'Se veddiano che l'Apostolato va innanzi verrano a noi. Ben troppo i molti stimano piu la potenza che la verità. La verità l'abbiamo, cerchiamo di mostrare una certa potenza, e trionferemo'; in one letter reporting that intervention is decided but delayed by orders and counter-orders 'al truppo di Vienna', and if it happens in his absence, his return may be impeded, requiring funds for a mission in Italy, referring to other members of the other branches of the organisation and on social matters, approximately 30 pages, sizes 90 x 70mm - 188 x 118mm; and a letter addressed to Mazzini by Antonio Panizzi on a matter relating to the exiles, and identifying a book; together with approximately 22 letters addressed to Odoardo Villani (in London and France) by correspondents in Italy, France and London, circa 1850-1857, some referring to political matters, also family and business letters, and correspondence relating to other members of his family and a few later items (together approximately 60 items, various sizes).
Mazzini had arrived in London aged 31 in 1836. In 1840 he founded a mutual aid society among Italian artisans in London, as a branch of the Giovine Italia, the association of exiles formed earlier in Marseilles. Apostolato Poplare, its official publication, was at first written almost entirely by Mazzini himself. He also opened a free school in Hatton Garden partly for adults but also for the numerous juvenile street musicians and trinket sellers who lived in appalling conditions in London. He contrived to visit Turin and Genoa from London in secret before 1848, and also visited Paris for meetings with his sympathisers there. (60)