The best examples of blue and white porcelain produced in the Yuan dynasty were renowned for their impressive use of dragons which were of particularly distinctive style. Perhaps the most famous representation of dragons on Yuan blue and white porcelain are those on the pair of altar vases in the Percival David Collection known as 'The David Vases'. The current jar is notable for its dragon and phoenix decoration. Although Yuan blue and white jars seem generally to be painted only with dragons, it is interesting to note that the David vases bear both dragons and phoenix. Peter Y.K. Lam provides a thorough discussion of Yuan dynasty dragons in his article 'The David Vases Revisited II: The Dragon Bands', Orientations, Vol. 43, No.1, January/February 2012, pp. 40-49.
Compare to a similar example in the Palace Museum Collection, with dragon and peony decoration, also dating to the Yuan dynasty, illustrated in The Complete Collection of Treasures of the Palace Museum: Blue and White Porcelain with Underglaze Red (I), Vol. 34, p.4, no. 3.
Also see a blue and white 'dragon' jar of similar form with mythical beast head handles but with a cylindrical neck, which sold at Christie's, Hong Kong, 27 October 2003, lot 629.