Robert Marsham-Townshend (1834-1914)
Series of autograph manuscript journals, compiled on journeys in North, Central and South America (particularly Brazil), S.E. Asia, and the Far East, the Middle East, Australasia, India, Kashmir and Europe, 16 vols, 1853-76, approximately 2,500 pages, 4to and 8vo; also two additional volumes, one describing his expedition up the Tocantins River [which flows northward from the Goias region - an area north of the present Brasilia - into the sea near the mouth of the Amazon], October - December 1858, 78 pages, 4to; the second describing two attempts to ascend the volcanoes of Arequipa in Peru, 10-17 June 1863, 104 pages, 8vo; his passports, including 8 issued by the Foreign Office, London (6 in morocco bindings) and 25 issued by foreign powers including three in Persian to present to village chiefs, many with endorsements (33); autograph letters signed by Marsham-Townshend (23) written to his wife, Harriet, on his travels, from Brazil, Hong Kong, China, etc., 1856-64, 134 pages, 8vo; collection of letters addressed to him, the majority on his travels, the correspondents including Sir George Bowen (Brisbane, 1866), H. Marten (Batavia, 1867), T.G. Knox (Singapore, 1867), Robert Stirling (3 long letters from Honolulu, 1867-68), Henry Alabaster (Bangkok, 1868, concerning audience with King Mongkut), Youhannah El Karey (Beyrouth, series), autograph notebook on volcanoes, 38 leaves, some blanks, 8vo (in one tin trunk).
1853 June-August: Europe
1856-1858 South America: April-September 1856 in Brazil, as attach at the British Legation at Rio, a base for exploration; September-November 1857 travels from Rio to Porto Alegre, Rio Grande to buy agates; October-December 1858 makes expedition up the Tocantins River, and from Para by canoe with seven hired men, a pilot, who was engaged at their first halt at Maracan; he describes the journey, the scenery and wildlife, the search for food, the visits to the settlements (including the house of the retired miltary commander, Captain Constancio Dias Martins) and the Indians.
April 1861-April 1862: Far East especially Hong Kong, China (Shanghai, Ningpo, Canton), Japan (Yokohama, Tokyo and Kawasaki), Singapore, Ceylon, India and Egypt
July 1862-July 1865: South America (Brazil, July-November), Uruguay, Argentina and Paraguay, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Andes, Central America (exploring volcanoes), from March 1865 in USA, California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, Salt Lake City, Utah, Nevada, California
February-July 1868: Bombay to Middle East, Iran, Iraq to Moscow and St Petersburg
June-September 1871: Spain and Portugal
March-July 1872: Southern Italy with brief visit to Tunis and Carthage, Sicily (including Etna, Stromboli and eruption of Vesuvius)
March-July 1873: Holy Land
June-December 1876: Mauritius, Mozambique, South Africa
The Honourable Robert Marsham-Townshend, MA, FSA, FRGS, FGS, explorer, geologist and antiquary, was born in 1834, second son of Charles, 2nd Earl of Romney but the only child of the latter's second marriage with Mary Elizabeth, daughter of John Thomas Townshend, 2nd Viscount Sydney. Marsham who acted as attach at the British Legation in Brazil in 1857 assumed the additional surname of Townshend in 1893 when he became the heir and representative of the Townshend family of Frognal, Chislehurst, Kent after the death of the 3rd Viscount in 1914.