Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Volume 57, 1938. 2o. Original blue-green cloth. AN IMPORTANT STEP IN THE ORIGIN OF THE MODERN COMPUTER INDUSTRY. In this paper, Shannon showed how to express Boolean logic through electrical circuits. -- SHANNON. "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", in: The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 27, Nos. 3 & 4, pp. 379-423. New York, 1948. 8o. Bound together with Nos. 1-2 of Vol. 27. Later blue cloth. --SHANNON, Claude E. and Warren WEAVER. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1949. 8o. Original burgundy cloth (spine slightly faded, very light wear to extremities). FIRST EDITION in book form of Shannon's expanded version of his theory (now confidently entitled "The ... " rather than "A Mathematical Theory"), with an additional chapter by Weaver entitled "Recent Contributions to the Mathematical Theory of Communication". In this chapter, Weaver put Shannon's work in laymen's terms and set it in a more general scientific context, including an explication of its deep links with the concept of entropy. [with:] Journal of Mathematics and Physics. New York, April 1949-January 1950. 4 issues, bound together in later blue cloth. Provenance: Cody Memorial Library. [With:] The Bell System Technical Journal. New York, 1948, Vol. 27, Nos. 1-2 (2 copies each), Nos. 3-4 (3 copies each); 1949, Vol. 28, No.1 (including Shannon: "The Synthesis of Two-Terminal Switching Circuits", pp. 59-98), 2 copies; Nos. 2-3 (2 copies each), No. 4 (including Shannon: "Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems", pp. 656-715), 2 copies; 1950, Vol. 29, No. 1 (2 copies); No. 2 (including Shannon: "Memory Requirements in a Telephone Exchange", pp. 343-349), 2 copies; 1959, Vol. 38, Nos. 1-2; No. 3 (including Shannon: "Probability of error for Optimal Codes in a Gaussian Channel", pp. 611-656); Nos. 4-6. Original blue printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess." In: Philosophical Magazine. Vol. XLI, Seventh Series, Number 314, March 1950, pp. 256-275. 4o. Bound with 11 other issues, January-December 1950. Later green cloth. -- SHANNON. "A Universal Turing Machine with Two Internal States". In: Annals of Mathematics Studies; Automata Studies. Edited by C.E. Shannon and J. McCarthy. Number 34, 1956, pp. 157-165. 4o. Original printed orange wrappers. -- SHANNON. "Channels with Side Information at the Transmitter." In: IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 2, No. 4, October 1958, pp. 289-293. 4o. Bound with 3 other issues, January-July 1958, Vol. 2, Nos. 1-3. Disbound, original printed wrappers preserved. -- SHANNON. "Game Playing Machines." In: Journal of the Franklin Institute, December 1955, Vol. 260, No. 6, pp. 447-453. [With:] Journal of the Franklin Institute, July-November 1955, Vol. 260, Nos. 1-5. Original printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. " Certain Results in Coding Theory for Noisy Channels." In: Information and Control, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 6-25 (2 copies). [With:] Information and Control, Vol. 1, Nos. 2-3; No. 4 (including Shannon "A Note on the Partial Ordering for Communication Channels", pp. 390-397). Original printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. "Mathematical Theory of the Differential Analyzer." In: Journal of Mathematics and Physics, Vol. 20, No. 4, December 1941, pp. 337-354 (2 copies). [With:] Journal of Mathematics and Physics, Vol. 28, No. 1; No. 2 (including Shannon "A Theorem on Coloring the Lines of a Network", pp. 148-151); Nos. 3-4. Original printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. "Von Neumann's Contribution to Automata Theory." In: Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, May 1958, Vol. 64, No. 3, Part 2, pp. 123-129 (4 copies). [With:] Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, January 1966, Vol. 72, No. 1, part II. -- SHANNON. "Communication in the Presence of Noise." In: Transactions of the IRE, Vol. 37, No. 1, January 1949, pp. 10-21. 4o. Bound with Nos. 2-12, January-December 1949. Blue cloth. [With:] Transactions of the IRE, Vol. 37, Nos. 1-12. 2 volumes. 4o. Red cloth. -- SHANNON. "Computers and Automata." In: Transactions of the IRE, Vol. 41, No. 10, October 1953, pp. 1234-1241. 4o. Bound with Nos. 1-9, 11-12. 2 volumes. Red cloth. -- SHANNON. "Communication in the Presence of Noise." In Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 37, No. 1, January 1949, pp. 10-21 (3 copies). Orignal printed wrappers. [With:] Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 37, Nos. 2-12, February-December 1949 (2 copies of each); Vol. 41, Nos. 1-12, January-December 1953. Original printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. "The Zero Error Capacity of a Noisy Channel." In: IRE Transactions, September 1956, Vol. IT-2, No. 3, pp. 8-19 (3 copies). original printed wrappers. [With:] IRE Transactions, Vol. IT-2, Nos. 1-2, 4 (2 copies each). A COLLECTION OF SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT WORKS IN THE CREATION OF MODERN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY. In 1936, Turing had shown in his paper "On Computable Numbers" (see lot 92) that a universal computable device was not only possible, but eminently practical. This work, along with Shannon's 1938 paper "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits" together have turned out to be the theoretical source from which the modern computer industry has arisen. Shannon, then a graduate student at MIT, showed for the first time how to express Boolean logic through electrical circuits. He invented a branch of mathematics called information theory, and defined the measure of information known as a bit. With these two advances, Shannon provided the framework for the subsequent fifty years of the development of computers. (108) " /> SHANNON, Claude E. "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits." In: <I>Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers</I>, Volume 57, 1938. 2<V>o. Original blue-green cloth. AN IMPORTANT STEP IN THE ORIGIN OF THE MODERN COMPUTER INDUSTRY. In this paper, Shannon showed how to express Boolean logic through electrical circuits. -- SHANNON. "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", in: <I>The Bell System Technical Journal</I>, Vol. 27, Nos. 3 & 4, pp. 379-423. New York, 1948. 8<V>o. Bound together with Nos. 1-2 of Vol. 27. Later blue cloth. --SHANNON, Claude E. and Warren WEAVER. <I>The Mathematical Theory of Communication</I>. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1949. 8<V>o. Original burgundy cloth (spine slightly faded, very light wear to extremities). FIRST EDITION in book form of Shannon's expanded version of his theory (now confidently entitled "The ... " rather than "A Mathematical Theory"), with an additional chapter by Weaver entitled "Recent Contributions to the Mathematical Theory of Communication". In this chapter, Weaver put Shannon's work in laymen's terms and set it in a more general scientific context, including an explication of its deep links with the concept of entropy. [<I>with</I>:] <I>Journal of Mathematics and Physics</I>. New York, April 1949-January 1950. 4 issues, bound together in later blue cloth. <I>Provenance</I>: Cody Memorial Library. [<I>With</I>:] <I>The Bell System Technical Journal</I>. New York, 1948, Vol. 27, Nos. 1-2 (2 copies each), Nos. 3-4 (3 copies each); 1949, Vol. 28, No.1 (including Shannon: "The Synthesis of Two-Terminal Switching Circuits", pp. 59-98), 2 copies; Nos. 2-3 (2 copies each), No. 4 (including Shannon: "Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems", pp. 656-715), 2 copies; 1950, Vol. 29, No. 1 (2 copies); No. 2 (including Shannon: "Memory Requirements in a Telephone Exchange", pp. 343-349), 2 copies; 1959, Vol. 38, Nos. 1-2; No. 3 (including Shannon: "Probability of error for Optimal Codes in a Gaussian Channel", pp. 611-656); Nos. 4-6. Original blue printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess." In: <I>Philosophical Magazine</I>. Vol. XLI, Seventh Series, Number 314, March 1950, pp. 256-275. 4<V>o. Bound with 11 other issues, January-December 1950. Later green cloth. -- SHANNON. "A Universal Turing Machine with Two Internal States". In: <I>Annals of Mathematics Studies; Automata Studies</I>. Edited by C.E. Shannon and J. McCarthy. Number 34, 1956, pp. 157-165. 4<V>o. Original printed orange wrappers. -- SHANNON. "Channels with Side Information at the Transmitter." In: <I>IBM Journal of Research and Development</I>, Vol. 2, No. 4, October 1958, pp. 289-293. 4<V>o. Bound with 3 other issues, January-July 1958, Vol. 2, Nos. 1-3. Disbound, original printed wrappers preserved. -- SHANNON. "Game Playing Machines." In: <I>Journal of the Franklin Institute</I>, December 1955, Vol. 260, No. 6, pp. 447-453. [<I>With</I>:] <I>Journal of the Franklin Institute</I>, July-November 1955, Vol. 260, Nos. 1-5. Original printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. " Certain Results in Coding Theory for Noisy Channels." In: <I>Information and Control</I>, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 6-25 (2 copies). [<I>With</I>:] <I>Information and Control</I>, Vol. 1, Nos. 2-3; No. 4 (including Shannon "A Note on the Partial Ordering for Communication Channels", pp. 390-397). Original printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. "Mathematical Theory of the Differential Analyzer." In: <I>Journal of Mathematics and Physics</I>, Vol. 20, No. 4, December 1941, pp. 337-354 (2 copies). [<I>With</I>:] <I>Journal of Mathematics and Physics</I>, Vol. 28, No. 1; No. 2 (including Shannon "A Theorem on Coloring the Lines of a Network", pp. 148-151); Nos. 3-4. Original printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. "Von Neumann's Contribution to Automata Theory." In: <I>Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society</I>, May 1958, Vol. 64, No. 3, Part 2, pp. 123-129 (4 copies). [<I>With</I>:] <I>Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society</I>, January 1966, Vol. 72, No. 1, part II. -- SHANNON. "Communication in the Presence of Noise." In: <I>Transactions of the IRE</I>, Vol. 37, No. 1, January 1949, pp. 10-21. 4<V>o. Bound with Nos. 2-12, January-December 1949. Blue cloth. [<I>With</I>:] <I>Transactions of the IRE</I>, Vol. 37, Nos. 1-12. 2 volumes. 4<V>o. Red cloth. -- SHANNON. "Computers and Automata." In: <I>Transactions of the IRE</I>, Vol. 41, No. 10, October 1953, pp. 1234-1241. 4<V>o. Bound with Nos. 1-9, 11-12. 2 volumes. Red cloth. -- SHANNON. "Communication in the Presence of Noise." In <I>Proceedings of the IRE</I>, Vol. 37, No. 1, January 1949, pp. 10-21 (3 copies). Orignal printed wrappers. [<I>With</I>:] <I>Proceedings of the IRE</I>, Vol. 37, Nos. 2-12, February-December 1949 (2 copies of each); Vol. 41, Nos. 1-12, January-December 1953. Original printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. "The Zero Error Capacity of a Noisy Channel." In: <I>IRE Transactions</I>, September 1956, Vol. IT-2, No. 3, pp. 8-19 (3 copies). original printed wrappers. [<I>With</I>:] <I>IRE Transactions</I>, Vol. IT-2, Nos. 1-2, 4 (2 copies each). A COLLECTION OF SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT WORKS IN THE CREATION OF MODERN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY. In 1936, Turing had shown in his paper "On Computable Numbers" (see lot 92) that a universal computable device was not only possible, but eminently practical. This work, along with Shannon's 1938 paper "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits" together have turned out to be the theoretical source from which the modern computer industry has arisen. Shannon, then a graduate student at MIT, showed for the first time how to express Boolean logic through electrical circuits. He invented a branch of mathematics called information theory, and defined the measure of information known as a bit. With these two advances, Shannon provided the framework for the subsequent fifty years of the development of computers. (108) | Christie's
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    SHANNON, Claude E. ''A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits.'' In: Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Volume 57, 1938. 2o. Original blue-green cloth. AN IMPORTANT STEP IN THE ORIGIN OF THE MODERN COMPUTER INDUSTRY. In this paper, Shannon showed how to express Boolean logic through electrical circuits. -- SHANNON. ''A Mathematical Theory of Communication'', in: The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 27, Nos. 3 & 4, pp. 379-423. New York, 1948. 8o. Bound together with Nos. 1-2 of Vol. 27. Later blue cloth. --SHANNON, Claude E. and Warren WEAVER. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1949. 8o. Original burgundy cloth (spine slightly faded, very light wear to extremities). FIRST EDITION in book form of Shannon's expanded version of his theory (now confidently entitled ''The ... '' rather than ''A Mathematical Theory''), with an additional chapter by Weaver entitled ''Recent Contributions to the Mathematical Theory of Communication''. In this chapter, Weaver put Shannon's work in laymen's terms and set it in a more general scientific context, including an explication of its deep links with the concept of entropy. [with:] Journal of Mathematics and Physics. New York, April 1949-January 1950. 4 issues, bound together in later blue cloth. Provenance: Cody Memorial Library. [With:] The Bell System Technical Journal. New York, 1948, Vol. 27, Nos. 1-2 (2 copies each), Nos. 3-4 (3 copies each); 1949, Vol. 28, No.1 (including Shannon: ''The Synthesis of Two-Terminal Switching Circuits'', pp. 59-98), 2 copies; Nos. 2-3 (2 copies each), No. 4 (including Shannon: ''Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems'', pp. 656-715), 2 copies; 1950, Vol. 29, No. 1 (2 copies); No. 2 (including Shannon: ''Memory Requirements in a Telephone Exchange'', pp. 343-349), 2 copies; 1959, Vol. 38, Nos. 1-2; No. 3 (including Shannon: ''Probability of error for Optimal Codes in a Gaussian Channel'', pp. 611-656); Nos. 4-6. Original blue printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. ''Programming a Computer for Playing Chess.'' In: Philosophical Magazine. Vol. XLI, Seventh Series, Number 314, March 1950, pp. 256-275. 4o. Bound with 11 other issues, January-December 1950. Later green cloth. -- SHANNON. ''A Universal Turing Machine with Two Internal States''. In: Annals of Mathematics Studies; Automata Studies. Edited by C.E. Shannon and J. McCarthy. Number 34, 1956, pp. 157-165. 4o. Original printed orange wrappers. -- SHANNON. ''Channels with Side Information at the Transmitter.'' In: IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 2, No. 4, October 1958, pp. 289-293. 4o. Bound with 3 other issues, January-July 1958, Vol. 2, Nos. 1-3. Disbound, original printed wrappers preserved. -- SHANNON. ''Game Playing Machines.'' In: Journal of the Franklin Institute, December 1955, Vol. 260, No. 6, pp. 447-453. [With:] Journal of the Franklin Institute, July-November 1955, Vol. 260, Nos. 1-5. Original printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. '' Certain Results in Coding Theory for Noisy Channels.'' In: Information and Control, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 6-25 (2 copies). [With:] Information and Control, Vol. 1, Nos. 2-3; No. 4 (including Shannon ''A Note on the Partial Ordering for Communication Channels'', pp. 390-397). Original printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. ''Mathematical Theory of the Differential Analyzer.'' In: Journal of Mathematics and Physics, Vol. 20, No. 4, December 1941, pp. 337-354 (2 copies). [With:] Journal of Mathematics and Physics, Vol. 28, No. 1; No. 2 (including Shannon ''A Theorem on Coloring the Lines of a Network'', pp. 148-151); Nos. 3-4. Original printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. ''Von Neumann's Contribution to Automata Theory.'' In: Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, May 1958, Vol. 64, No. 3, Part 2, pp. 123-129 (4 copies). [With:] Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, January 1966, Vol. 72, No. 1, part II. -- SHANNON. ''Communication in the Presence of Noise.'' In: Transactions of the IRE, Vol. 37, No. 1, January 1949, pp. 10-21. 4o. Bound with Nos. 2-12, January-December 1949. Blue cloth. [With:] Transactions of the IRE, Vol. 37, Nos. 1-12. 2 volumes. 4o. Red cloth. -- SHANNON. ''Computers and Automata.'' In: Transactions of the IRE, Vol. 41, No. 10, October 1953, pp. 1234-1241. 4o. Bound with Nos. 1-9, 11-12. 2 volumes. Red cloth. -- SHANNON. ''Communication in the Presence of Noise.'' In Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 37, No. 1, January 1949, pp. 10-21 (3 copies). Orignal printed wrappers. [With:] Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 37, Nos. 2-12, February-December 1949 (2 copies of each); Vol. 41, Nos. 1-12, January-December 1953. Original printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. ''The Zero Error Capacity of a Noisy Channel.'' In: IRE Transactions, September 1956, Vol. IT-2, No. 3, pp. 8-19 (3 copies). original printed wrappers. [With:] IRE Transactions, Vol. IT-2, Nos. 1-2, 4 (2 copies each). A COLLECTION OF SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT WORKS IN THE CREATION OF MODERN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY. In 1936, Turing had shown in his paper ''On Computable Numbers'' (see lot 92) that a universal computable device was not only possible, but eminently practical. This work, along with Shannon's 1938 paper ''A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits'' together have turned out to be the theoretical source from which the modern computer industry has arisen. Shannon, then a graduate student at MIT, showed for the first time how to express Boolean logic through electrical circuits. He invented a branch of mathematics called information theory, and defined the measure of information known as a bit. With these two advances, Shannon provided the framework for the subsequent fifty years of the development of computers. (108)

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    SHANNON, Claude E. "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits." In: Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Volume 57, 1938. 2o. Original blue-green cloth. AN IMPORTANT STEP IN THE ORIGIN OF THE MODERN COMPUTER INDUSTRY. In this paper, Shannon showed how to express Boolean logic through electrical circuits. -- SHANNON. "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", in: The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 27, Nos. 3 & 4, pp. 379-423. New York, 1948. 8o. Bound together with Nos. 1-2 of Vol. 27. Later blue cloth. --SHANNON, Claude E. and Warren WEAVER. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1949. 8o. Original burgundy cloth (spine slightly faded, very light wear to extremities). FIRST EDITION in book form of Shannon's expanded version of his theory (now confidently entitled "The ... " rather than "A Mathematical Theory"), with an additional chapter by Weaver entitled "Recent Contributions to the Mathematical Theory of Communication". In this chapter, Weaver put Shannon's work in laymen's terms and set it in a more general scientific context, including an explication of its deep links with the concept of entropy. [with:] Journal of Mathematics and Physics. New York, April 1949-January 1950. 4 issues, bound together in later blue cloth. Provenance: Cody Memorial Library. [With:] The Bell System Technical Journal. New York, 1948, Vol. 27, Nos. 1-2 (2 copies each), Nos. 3-4 (3 copies each); 1949, Vol. 28, No.1 (including Shannon: "The Synthesis of Two-Terminal Switching Circuits", pp. 59-98), 2 copies; Nos. 2-3 (2 copies each), No. 4 (including Shannon: "Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems", pp. 656-715), 2 copies; 1950, Vol. 29, No. 1 (2 copies); No. 2 (including Shannon: "Memory Requirements in a Telephone Exchange", pp. 343-349), 2 copies; 1959, Vol. 38, Nos. 1-2; No. 3 (including Shannon: "Probability of error for Optimal Codes in a Gaussian Channel", pp. 611-656); Nos. 4-6. Original blue printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess." In: Philosophical Magazine. Vol. XLI, Seventh Series, Number 314, March 1950, pp. 256-275. 4o. Bound with 11 other issues, January-December 1950. Later green cloth. -- SHANNON. "A Universal Turing Machine with Two Internal States". In: Annals of Mathematics Studies; Automata Studies. Edited by C.E. Shannon and J. McCarthy. Number 34, 1956, pp. 157-165. 4o. Original printed orange wrappers. -- SHANNON. "Channels with Side Information at the Transmitter." In: IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 2, No. 4, October 1958, pp. 289-293. 4o. Bound with 3 other issues, January-July 1958, Vol. 2, Nos. 1-3. Disbound, original printed wrappers preserved. -- SHANNON. "Game Playing Machines." In: Journal of the Franklin Institute, December 1955, Vol. 260, No. 6, pp. 447-453. [With:] Journal of the Franklin Institute, July-November 1955, Vol. 260, Nos. 1-5. Original printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. " Certain Results in Coding Theory for Noisy Channels." In: Information and Control, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 6-25 (2 copies). [With:] Information and Control, Vol. 1, Nos. 2-3; No. 4 (including Shannon "A Note on the Partial Ordering for Communication Channels", pp. 390-397). Original printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. "Mathematical Theory of the Differential Analyzer." In: Journal of Mathematics and Physics, Vol. 20, No. 4, December 1941, pp. 337-354 (2 copies). [With:] Journal of Mathematics and Physics, Vol. 28, No. 1; No. 2 (including Shannon "A Theorem on Coloring the Lines of a Network", pp. 148-151); Nos. 3-4. Original printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. "Von Neumann's Contribution to Automata Theory." In: Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, May 1958, Vol. 64, No. 3, Part 2, pp. 123-129 (4 copies). [With:] Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, January 1966, Vol. 72, No. 1, part II. -- SHANNON. "Communication in the Presence of Noise." In: Transactions of the IRE, Vol. 37, No. 1, January 1949, pp. 10-21. 4o. Bound with Nos. 2-12, January-December 1949. Blue cloth. [With:] Transactions of the IRE, Vol. 37, Nos. 1-12. 2 volumes. 4o. Red cloth. -- SHANNON. "Computers and Automata." In: Transactions of the IRE, Vol. 41, No. 10, October 1953, pp. 1234-1241. 4o. Bound with Nos. 1-9, 11-12. 2 volumes. Red cloth. -- SHANNON. "Communication in the Presence of Noise." In Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 37, No. 1, January 1949, pp. 10-21 (3 copies). Orignal printed wrappers. [With:] Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 37, Nos. 2-12, February-December 1949 (2 copies of each); Vol. 41, Nos. 1-12, January-December 1953. Original printed wrappers. -- SHANNON. "The Zero Error Capacity of a Noisy Channel." In: IRE Transactions, September 1956, Vol. IT-2, No. 3, pp. 8-19 (3 copies). original printed wrappers. [With:] IRE Transactions, Vol. IT-2, Nos. 1-2, 4 (2 copies each).

    A COLLECTION OF SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT WORKS IN THE CREATION OF MODERN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY. In 1936, Turing had shown in his paper "On Computable Numbers" (see lot 92) that a universal computable device was not only possible, but eminently practical. This work, along with Shannon's 1938 paper "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits" together have turned out to be the theoretical source from which the modern computer industry has arisen. Shannon, then a graduate student at MIT, showed for the first time how to express Boolean logic through electrical circuits. He invented a branch of mathematics called information theory, and defined the measure of information known as a bit. With these two advances, Shannon provided the framework for the subsequent fifty years of the development of computers. (108)

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