'A study for the lower right hand portion of the large genre work Improvisation on a Barrel Organ, which is in the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool (2368). By comparing the two, it can be seen from this how Orpen is trying out ideas of grouping sets of figures to fit within the directional lines of the complete composition.
The main work was completed about 1904, but Orpen had probably been working on it for several years before that as certain elements are reminiscent of his days at the Slade.
A more complete study for the whole picture was exhibited in London, Pyms Gallery, Orpen and the Edwardian Era, November 1987, no.16.
It was reproduced in the exhibition catalogue, p.51, along with an interesting concise discourse on the evolution of the work (p.50)'.