Henri II, King of France from 1547, was the son of Francis I. In 1533, as Duke of Orléans, he married Catherine de'Medici, aged 14 years old, by whom he had seven surviving children, three of whom became kings of France. In alliance with Scotland he declared war on England and captured Boulogne in 1550 and Calais in 1558. Alarmed by the rapid spread of Protestantism at home, he initiated the persecution of the Huguenots that would lead to the Wars of Religion (1562-1598). He died of accidental wounds received during a tournament and was succeeded by the first of his sons, Francis II, husband of Mary, Queen of Scots.