Ajdukiewicz's began his artistic training in 1868 at the Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow. In 1873 he moved to Munich and studied in the atelier of fellow Polish realist Josef Brandt. Brandt, a skilled equine painter, taught Ajdukiewicz to paint horses with accuracy and elegance and Ajdukiewicz later became famous for his Orientalist and military scenes of horses. In Munich Ajdukiewicz also met other prominent Polish artists and went on to study at the Munich Akademie under Anton Seitz and Alexander Wagner. In the late 1870's Ajdukiewicz traveled throughout Northern Africa and Asia Minor where he further developed as a painter and gained inspiration for his popular Orientalist paintings.
Ajdukiewicz was also known as a society portraitist and painted European nobility such as the Prince of Wales and other famous Polish actors and singers. The Royal Courts of Franz Josef, King of Romania and the Sultan Abdülhamid II recognized his ability in painting military parades and elegant portraits. A portrait of the acclaimed Polish actress, Helena Modrzejewska currently hangs in the Krakow Historical Musuem.