The unusual iconography of this mandala is likely derived from the Mani Ka' Bum, a compilation of stories about the Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara. This thangka is likely a depiction of the Multiple Deity Chintamani Jagaddamara Mandala, the origins of which the Mani Ka' Bum ascribes to the Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo. The general style is akin to mandalas first painted by Newari artists at Ngor monastery in the 15th century, though this thankga represents a later period of the style. See, for example, Bsod nams rgya mtsho and Musashi Tachikawa, The Ngor Mandalas of Tibet, Tokyo, 1991, p. 210, no. 130. At the center of the painting is the common form of four-armed Avalokiteshvara with Amitabha behind, the son and daughter attendant deities at the right and left and the consort deity in front. The next ring of twelve deities are the five principal Buddhas with their consorts accompanied by the Great Compassionate One and his consort Prajnaparamita. In the surrounding square enclosure are the thousand Buddhas of this aeon, while beyond that are the six Buddhas of the six realms of existence. At the top left side the lineage of teachers begins with the Buddha Amitabha and continues with Avalokiteshvara, King Songtsen Gampo, and Padmasambhava, followed by other teachers and Tibetan kings. The sides are dotted with various deities, mostly associated in some way with Avalokiteshvara. Along the bottom appear a host of deities indicating that this painting is part of a larger set of mandalas. The style of the painting and the choice of deities suggest that although not directly of Sakya origin, it is likely to be Jonangpa, Shalupa or Bodongpa, all schools directly or geographically associated with the primary Sakya tradition.