It is rare to find huanghuali luohan beds in this early, waistless simianping style. Lacquered examples are illustrated by Zhu Jiajin, ''Yongzheng nian de jiaju zhizao kao'', Gugong bowuyuan yuankan, 1985:3, p. 265, from the Palace Museum, Beijing and by Sarah Handler, ''The Revolution in Chinese Furniture: Moving from Mat to Chair'', JCCFS, Winter 1990, p. 40, from the Sackler Collection, Washington D.C.
Robert Ellsworth, in Chinese Furniture, p. 90, discusses the significance of the L-section legs which have been "cut out to simulate the T'ang box style construction of legs"
A waisted example with L-section legs and "floating" panels, formerly in the Robert and William Drummond and then the Alice Boney collections, and now in the Mimi and Raymond Hung Collection, is illustrated by Ellsworth, op. cit., p. 142, no. 33 and again by Ellsworth, Grindley and Christy, Chinese Furniture, One Hundred Examples from the Mimi and Raymond Hung Collection, p. 97, no. 28. Another waistless luohan bed, formerly in the Dr. Otto Burchard Collection, with L-section but with single plank railings, is illustrated by Gustav Ecke, Chinese Domestic Furniture, pl. 27, no. 21
For the more common design with waisted sides and solid legs compare the example illustrated by Sarah Handler, ''Comfort and Joy: A Couch Bed for Day and Night'', JCCFS, Winter 1991, p. 12, fig. 13; by Wang et. al., Masterpieces from the Museum of Classical Chinese Furniture, p. 10, no. 5 and sold in these rooms September 19, 1996, lot 100. Compare, also, a luohan bed of similar proportions and design illustrated by Robert Ellsworth op. cit., p. 143, no. 34, and now in the Astor Court, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
For other chuang with waisted sides and curving legs, see Handler, op. cit., p. 14, fig. 15 and p. 15, figs. 16 and 16a, from the Museum of Classical Chinese Furniture, sold in these rooms September 19, 1996, lot 28
For a discussion of the possible origin of the couch bed where it is suggested that they evolved from the Han dynasty low platforms with screens on two or three sides, see Sarah Handler, ''Wood Shaped and Standing through the Winds of Time: The Evolution of Chinese Furniture'', Catalogue to the exhibition, Beyond the Screen, pp. 42-43. For its various uses during the Ming period, including sleeping, meditating and entertaining friends, see Sarah Handler, op. cit., pp. 118-119