After a print by Pieter H. Schut, published in Toneel ofte Vertooch der Bybelsche Historien, Amsterdam, 1659, which is probably a free variation after a lost painting by Peter Paul Rubens.
The Judgement of Salomon (I Kings 3: 16-28) shows the legendary wisdom of Salomon, King of Israel, who was called upon to judge between two prostitutes who both had given birth to a child at the same time. One baby had died and both claimed the remaining infant as their own. In order to reveal the truth, Salomon ordered to cut the living baby in two and to give half to one and half to the other woman. At this point the rightful mother revealed herself by renouncing on the child in order to save its life and the baby was returned to her.
See Jan Pluis, Bijbeltegels, Bijbelse voorstellingen op Nederlandse wandtegels van de 17e tot de 20 eeuw, Münster, 1994, no. 847, ill. p. 346, for a similar example in De Swarte Walvis, Zaanse Schans, Zaandam.