Related to the painting commissioned before 1637 by Cardinal Lorenzo Magalotti, Bishop of Ferrara, now in the University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor (see L. Salerno, I dipinti del Guercino, Rome, 1988, no. 180). Magalotti bequeathed the painting to Pope Urban VII Barberini, and it remained in the Barberini family until it was purchased by the Duke of Northumberland in the second half of the eighteenth century.
Four securely attributed drawings are connected to the painting of Esther and Ahasuerus. A partial study was sold at Sotheby's, London, 23 March 1978, lot 157, and two drawings of Ahasuerus were sold at Christie's, London, 23 November 1976, lot 11, and 11 April 1978, lot 49. A drawing of Esther supported by her attendants is at Christ Church (J. Byam Shaw, Drawings by Old Masters at Christ Church, Oxford, Oxford, 1976, no. 997, pl. 603).