The Metropolitan Museum painting replicates a prototype of higher quality by Claude Lorrain that was acquired by the Spencer Museum of Art, University of Kansas, Lawrence in 1980. The present canvas is considered to be an anonymous, contemporary copy of the Kansas picture by most recent authorities (P. Rosenberg, H.D. Russell, M. Kitson, J. Wilson, S.D. Borys), with the notable exception of Marcel Roethlisberger, the doyen of Claude studies, who regards it as a second, albeit inferior version by Claude himself, with figures and staffage perhaps from another hand. "On the evidence of the signature and the execution of details such as the plants I continue to believe that it is by Claude," Roethlisberger reasserted recently (in correspondence, 24 November 2013).