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EISENHOWER, Dwight. Five typewritten drafts of "The Chance for Peace" Address, WITH EXTENSIVE AUTOGRAPH EMENDATIONS IN EISENHOWER'S HAND and others by speechwriter Emmet J. Hughes. 31 March 1953 - 12 April 1953. Together 59 pages, folio, two of the drafts on onion-skin paper. [With:] HUGHES, E.J. Typed memo signed to Eisenhower, 7 April 1953, sending one of the drafts, and a copy of the front-page of The Washington Daily News, 16 April 1953.
EISENHOWER, Dwight. Five typewritten drafts of "The Chance for Peace" Address, WITH EXTENSIVE AUTOGRAPH EMENDATIONS IN EISENHOWER'S HAND and others by speechwriter Emmet J. Hughes. 31 March 1953 - 12 April 1953. Together 59 pages, folio, two of the drafts on onion-skin paper. [With:] HUGHES, E.J. Typed memo signed to Eisenhower, 7 April 1953, sending one of the drafts, and a copy of the front-page of The Washington Daily News, 16 April 1953.

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EISENHOWER, Dwight. Five typewritten drafts of "The Chance for Peace" Address, WITH EXTENSIVE AUTOGRAPH EMENDATIONS IN EISENHOWER'S HAND and others by speechwriter Emmet J. Hughes. 31 March 1953 - 12 April 1953. Together 59 pages, folio, two of the drafts on onion-skin paper. [With:] HUGHES, E.J. Typed memo signed to Eisenhower, 7 April 1953, sending one of the drafts, and a copy of the front-page of The Washington Daily News, 16 April 1953.

"EVERY GUN THAT IS MADE, EVERY WARSHIP LAUNCHED, EVERY ROCKET FIRED SIGNIFIES, IN THE FINAL SENSE, A THEFT FROM THOSE WHO HUNGER AND ARE NOT FED, THOSE WHO ARE COLD AND ARE NOT CLOTHED"

EISENHOWER SEES "HUMANITY HANGING FROM A CROSS OF IRON" IN HIS PASSIONATE ATTACK ON THE COLD WAR AND THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE. A series of drafts of Dwight Eisenhower's famous "Chance for Peace" address of 16 April 1953, in which the President makes a bold call for the U. S. and U. S. S. R. to turn away from the arms race and achieve a more peaceful coexistence. The five drafts here comprise the sixth draft (dated 31 March 1953), three copies of the eighth draft, and the (unnumbered) 12 April 1953 draft. The sixth, one copy of the eighth, and the 12 April draft all contain numerous corrections and emendations in Eisenhower's hand. One of the other copies of the eighth draft is marked "EJH Copy." Hughes's notations appear in several of the drafts, but NEARLY ALL THE THE TEXTUAL CHANGES ARE IN EISENHOWER'S HAND.

THERE ARE SEVERAL HUNDRED WORDS WRITTEN BY EISENHOWER in the margins and between the lines of these drafts; comparing these versions with the final text, reveals a number of important changes. One of the most fascinating and historically significant changes can be seen in the very conciliatory olive branch that Eisenhower extends to the Soviets in an extensive handwritten addition to the 3/31/53 draft, only to have it considerably toned down in the final version. Eisenhower speaks of his hopes for detente following the death of Stalin: "Recent statements of its leaders give some evidence that they may recognize and possibly may be ready to seize this opportunity. The rest of the world asks nothing else at this moment but confidence of their sincerity. Certainly for either or both of us to continue with the tide, either by blind resolve or by tired acquiescence, though easy, could also be fatal. So, in whatever kind of meeting, conference or congress, either through the processes already established in the U. N. or in exploratory discussions outside that organization, this nation stands ready to meet halfway every honest offer; it will do everything that honesty and self-respect permit. We know there is a different and better way for mankind to follow. It is a way as fully protective of the right of the U.S.S.R. as of ourselves. We are impatient of propaganda; we want no rhetoric, no glittering generality or specious promise. We are not particular as to procedures and protocol; we want only sincerity on the part of all participants." In the final version this effusive passage is cooled down to: "We welcome every honest act of peace. We care nothing for mere rhetoric. We are only for sincerity of peaceful purpose attested by deeds."

There are numerous other textual changes--one draft refers to the Soviet "dictatorship" while another changes that term to the more neutral "system." These reflect not just stylistic matters, but fundamental policy questions--what to say about Korea, or the prospect of an Austrian peace treaty? In addition to Eisenhower's speechwriter, Emmet Hughes, other contributors to this important address included the President's brother Milton, trusted aide Walter B. ("Beetle") Smith, and Paul Nitze. Among all the changing passages in these drafts, the most memorable and passionate phrases remained untouched, for they reflected Eisenhower's fundamental beliefs about the terrible destructiveness of war and the need to work for peace: "Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed....We pay for a single fighter with a half million bushels of wheat. We pay for a single destroyer with new homes that could have housed more than 8,000 people...This is not a way of life at all, in any true sense. Under the cloud of threatening war, it is humanity hanging from a cross of iron." Provenance: Emmet J. Hughes. (5)
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