This unusual scene may derive from the Yang Jia Jiang (The Generals of the Yang Family) written by Yong Damu during the Ming dynasty. The scene depicts a Northern Song story of women of the Yang family training for mounted combat against Liao dynasty invaders from Manchuria, as the male members of the Yang family had been killed in earlier battles. Emphasizing loyalty and sacrifice, the subject matter was an illustration of the Kangxi emperor's use of historical scenes as political propaganda to consolidate his Manchu dynasty power base. A large blue and white baluster vase decorated with this scene is illustrated in The Taft Museum: Chinese Ceramics and Works of Art, New York, 1995, pp. 586-7, no. 1931.138.