Auguste Rodin: the father of modern sculpture

A guide to the life and career of the 19th- and early 20th-century French sculptor who revolutionised the medium, creating some of the best-known — and best-loved — sculptures of our time

A portrait of Auguste Rodin in his studio, taken by ‘Dornac’, aka Paul Marsan

A portrait of Auguste Rodin in his studio, taken by ‘Dornac’, aka Paul Marsan. Archives Larousse, Paris. Photo: Bridgeman Images

The father of modern sculpture was largely self-taught

Auguste Rodin (1840-1917) is renowned for breathing life into clay, creating naturalistic, often vigorously modelled sculptures that convey intense human emotions: love, ecstasy, agony or grief. Breaking the rules of academic convention and classical idealism, Rodin ushered in a new form of highly expressive sculpture that went on to influence generations of artists.

Born in Paris on 12 November 1840, just two days before Claude Monet, Rodin displayed a precocious artistic talent from an early age. At 14, he was enrolled in the Ecole Impériale Spéciale de Dessin et de Mathématiques in Paris, known as the ‘Petite Ecole’, though later he failed three times to enter the hallowed Ecole des Beaux-Arts, instead forging his career as a largely self-taught artist.

Auguste Rodin (1840-1917), Méditation, petit modèle, version type I, conceived by 1887. Bronze with green patina. Height: 74 cm. This bronze cast in 1943 in an edition of 13. Sold for €490,000 on 4 June 2020 at Christie’s in Paris

Before becoming a sculptor, Rodin briefly became a monk

In 1862, repeated artistic rejection, as well as the grief he felt over the death of his sister, led Rodin to abandon art and join a Catholic religious community, adopting the name Brother Augustin in the Order of the Blessed Sacrament.

However, the order’s founder quickly recognised the young artist’s calling and encouraged Rodin to return to his true passion: sculpture.

On a trip to Italy, Rodin fell under the spell of Michelangelo

Rodin travelled to Italy in 1875, a trip described by the late art historian Kirk Varnedoe as, ‘one of the seminal events in modern art’.

Auguste rodin (1840-1917), Penseur, Taille de la Porte dit ‘Moyen Modèle’, conceived in 1880. Bronze with dark brown patina. 28⅛ x 16½ x 23 in (71.3 x 42 x 58.3 cm). This proof cast circa 1928. Sold for €10,739,500 on 30 June 2022 at Christie’s in Paris

Here, in his mid-thirties, he fell under the spell of the Renaissance master Michelangelo, whose monumental, exaggerated nude figures would have a deep and lasting influence on the artist. ‘My liberation from academicism was via Michelangelo,’ Rodin later recalled. ‘He is the bridge by which I passed from one circle to another.’

Rodin’s first major sculpture was thought too lifelike to be authentic

In 1877 Rodin exhibited his first major work, The Age of Bronze, at the Paris Salon. Critics immediately declared that the male nude was too lifelike, accusing Rodin of casting the work from a live model, using a technique known as surmoulage.

Auguste Rodin (1840-1917), L’âge d’airain, Conceived in 1875-77. Bronze with black and green patina. Height: 71⅛ in (180.5 cm). Cast between 1902 and 1917. Sold for £3,401,250 on 23 June 2010 at Christie’s in London

Rodin strenuously denied these accusations, publishing statements of defence, as well as photographs of his model (a young Belgian soldier) to demonstrate the differences between his work and its inspiration. Despite the uproar, the controversy put Rodin on the map, and just three years later The Age of Bronze was purchased by the French state.

A commission from the French government — The Gates of Hell — changed Rodin’s life forever

In 1880, Rodin was commissioned by the French government to create a set of bronze doors for a new building that was to be a museum of decorative arts in Paris. Inspired by Dante’s Inferno (from the Divine Comedy), the doors depict a mass of writhing figures enduring the torments of hell. Many of Rodin’s greatest works, including The Kiss, The Thinker, Eve and many others, originated from The Gates of Hell.

Auguste Rodin (1840-1917), Eve, grand modèle-version sans rocher, conceived in 1881. Bronze with brown patina. Height: 68⅛ in (173 cm). Cast in 1897 by François Rudier. Sold for $18,969,000 on 6 May 2008 at Christie’s in New York

Rodin could never bring himself to finish this magnum opus. The museum was never built and so the Gates became an autonomous artwork — ‘the source of almost everything that met with success,’ as the artist later reminisced.

An icon of romantic love, The Kiss in fact shows a couple condemned

Arguably Rodin’s most famous work, The Kiss presents two lovers locked in a blissful embrace. Yet these figures are in fact two of Dante’s doomed medieval characters, namely Francesca da Rimini and her lover Paolo Malatesta.

Francesca’s husband (who was Paolo’s brother) found the pair and, enraged by their adulterous liaison, stabbed them both to death, condemning them to an eternity in hell.

Auguste Rodin (1840-1917), Le baiser, 3ème réduction, conceived in 1886. Bronze with brown patina. Height: 15⅝ in (39.8 cm). Conceived in 1886, this version referred to as ‘3ème réduction’ executed in this size in 1901. Sold for €756,000 on 4 April 2023 at Christie’s in Paris

Picturing the couple in the moment they give in to their desires, Rodin ultimately decided that the work was too love-filled, tender and joyous for the fearful vision of hell he envisioned for the Gates. He removed it, and it soon became an independent sculpture, transcending both the origins of its subject matter and the time of its creation to become one of the greatest depictions of all-consuming romantic love.

Rodin had an affair with fellow sculptor Camille Claudel

In 1882 Rodin met a young sculptor, Camille Claudel. The two began a passionate and turbulent affair that lasted almost two decades.

Camille Claudel (1864-1943), Çacountala, circa 1888. Charcoal and estompe on paper. 13 x 9⅜ in (33.1 x 23.8 cm). Sold for €302,400 on 4 April 2023 at Christie’s in Paris

Rodin’s sometime student, muse, model, confidante and collaborator, Claudel also had a successful career. La valse (The Waltz) dates from the peak of these years of passion and shared creation. ‘I showed her where she would find gold,’ Rodin once said of Claudel’s talent, ‘but the gold she found is all hers.’

Rodin remained lifelong friends with Claude Monet

Innovators of sculpture and painting respectively, these two titans of French art remained close friends over the course of their careers. They frequently exchanged works, and even exhibited together in a landmark show held at the Galerie Georges Petit in Paris in 1889.

Auguste Rodin (1840-1917), Femme drapée debout aux épaules dénudées. Motifs de fleurs, circa 1896-97. Watercolour and pencil on paper. 15 x 12¾ in (38.2 x 32.2 cm). Offered in Art Impressionniste & Moderne on 5 April 2023 at Christie’s in Paris

Rodin and Monet often wrote to one another. In 1897 the sculptor expressed his admiration for the painter: ‘I still have the same admiration for the artist who helped me understand light, clouds, the sea, the cathedrals that I already loved so much, but whose beauty awakened at dawn by your interpretation moved me so deeply.’

Dance became a central part of Rodin’s late work

Later in his career, Rodin increasingly drew inspiration from dance. Unlike Edgar Degas, however, who was fascinated by ballet and classical dance, Rodin’s passion lay in more modern forms.

Auguste Rodin (1840-1917), La coquille et la perle, conceived before 1896. Bronze with green and brown patina. Height: 15 in (38 cm). Cast in July 1908; unique. Sold for $605,000 on 5 November 2014 at Christie’s in New York

Rodin drew, painted and sculpted numerous depictions of the human form in movement, from Cambodian dancers to the music-hall stars of turn-of-the-century Paris —such as Loïe Fuller and Isadora Duncan — inspired by the impulsive, liberated and often extreme poses that these individuals held.

Lifetime casts, late casts and certificates of authenticity

In 1916, the year before his death, Rodin bequeathed his entire oeuvre to the French state. This not only included his sculptures, his drawings and his collection of antiquities and other works, but also, crucially, the right to continue to cast his works posthumously.

Throughout his career Rodin had entrusted the casting process to a small number of foundries. Today, the home of Rodin’s estate, the Musée Rodin, continues the artist’s legacy. It is the only institution permitted to create bronzes — either from Rodin’s plaster moulds or with new moulds taken from his plasters.

Owing to variations in size, medium and casting date (lifetime casts are rarer than posthumous and late casts, as are pieces in marble or plaster), Rodin’s work is more accessible than some might imagine. What is of the greatest importance when seeking to acquire a piece by Rodin is that the work be accompanied by a certificate of authenticity from the Comité Rodin: there are fakes on the market, so it is essential that a work has this document.

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Rodin’s work attracted a host of notable collectors, both in his lifetime and after his death. The author of Treasure Island, Robert Louis Stevenson, owned a plaster of Eternal Springtime (now in Philadelphia’s Rodin Museum), and decades later Lucian Freud kept a cast of Iris, Messenger of the Gods in his home.

Rodin remains a mainstay of any modern art collection. Just as his influence was felt on the generation of sculptors that followed — his most famous student, the sculptor Constantin Brancusi, remarked upon leaving his studio after just two months that ‘nothing grows under big trees’ — so his legacy continues to inform and inspire.

Today, pieces in marble, plaster and bronze can be found all over the world — from outside London’s Houses of Parliament to the National Museum of Western Art in Japan, as well as the artist’s birthplace and home, Paris, where the greatest collection of his work is housed in the Musée Rodin.

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